National Science Day is celebrated on 28th February every year to commemorate the discovery of The Raman Effect by Indian Physicist Sir C.V. Raman in the year 1928. For this groundbreaking discovery Raman Sir was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930.
In 1986 National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC) advised the Government of India to designate 28th February as the National Science to felicitate the great invention in the field of Physics and the Physicist Sir C.V. Raman. In the same year, Government of India, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi declared the day to be celebrated as the National Science Day.
Various events such as speeches, debates, science exhibitions, lectures, quiz competitions are celebrated all over the India in schools, colleges, universities. The event is celebrated in academic, scientific, technical, medical and research institutions as well.
Theme of National Science Day for 2023
“Global Science for Global Wellbeing” is the theme decided for this year to celebrate the National Science Day. Dr. Jitendra Singh, The Union Minister of State Science & Technology, revealed the theme for NSD 2023 on 10th January 2023. “As India enters 2023, the theme indicates India’s emerging global role and rising visibility in the international arena” minister said.
Know about the famous Physicist Sir C.V. Raman
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born on 7th November 1988 in Tamil Brahmin family. He did his work in the field of Physics in light scattering. In childhood, Raman was an intelligent and extraordinary child who completed his secondary and higher secondary education at the age of 11 and 13 only. At the age of 16 he completed his bachelor’s degree with honours in Physics from Presidency College. His first research paper was published on diffraction of light in 1906, at the time he was a graduate student.
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Scientific Contributions of Sir Raman
Sir Raman contributed to understand the scientific basis of musical sound. He wrote a critical research on vibrations of the pianoforte string that was known as Kaufmann's theory. Raman also studied the uniqueness of Indian drums and his analyses of the harmonic nature of the sounds of tabla and mridangam were the first scientific studies.
Blue Color of the Sea
In 1919, Raman started to work upon the scattering of light. In England he observed the blue color of the Mediterranean Sea and by using a simple pocket-size spectroscope and a Nicol Prism, he studied the sea water. In 1910, Rayleigh explained about the color of seawater that the dark blue color of deep sea has nothing to do with the blue color of water, but it is just the reflection of the sky seen into the water.
Raman could view the water using Nicol prism to avoid the influence of sunlight reflected by the surface. He described how the sea appears even more blue than usual, contradicting Rayleigh.
“The color of the Sea” an article by Sir Raman was published in November 1921. Later in 1924 it was concluded that the intrinsic colour of water is mainly attributed to the selective absorption of longer wavelengths of light in the red and orange regions of the spectrum, owing to overtones of the infrared absorbing O-H (oxygen and hydrogen combined) stretching modes of water molecules.
Raman Effect – Nobel Prize for the groundbreaking discovery
The Raman Effect can be defined as the change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules. When a beam of light traverses a dust-free, transparent sample of a chemical compound, a small fraction of the light emerges in directions other than that of the incident (incoming) beam.